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The Future of Earth – Sun as a White Dwarf – Universe Sandbox 2


have you ever wondered what would happen
to our planet Earth if our beautiful Sun that you see in a background has
undergone a nova and changed into a white dwarf well today we’re going to do that
in universe sandbox 2 and find out what happens welcome to what the math and so for this video we’re going to be
using this climate simulation which allows us to see planet Earth without
really any clouds without any atmosphere so that we can actually see what’s
happening on the surface now this is Earth at its prime basically this is you
know what’s happening right now we have winter in some parts of the world who
have summer in some other parts of the world and essentially if you if you were
to run this really really fast you would see that the climate changes with
seasons obviously so here’s winter in the Northern Hemisphere and now it’s
summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the opposite is happening on the other
side of the planet on this in the sound on that hemisphere we have Antarctica
ice shelf receding or increasing in size now so alright so let’s let’s see what
happens if we suddenly experience and no one and obviously this is something that
we don’t expect to happen for the next five or six billion years but you never
know maybe we miscalculated maybe something is not going well for our Sun
and it suddenly becomes really really really old
and starts getting older and older the temperature starts increasing and at
some point undergoes a nova boom all right Sun Nova remnant when this happens
what will happen to our Sun is actually it’s going to turn into what’s called a
white dwarf now white dwarfs are really interesting because they’re very very
small first of all there are only about size of our planet Earth but the inside
of them you get this really highly dense carbon oxygen material that is
essentially at first it is very very very very hot right now this star is
about 60,000 degrees Kelvin which is essentially close to being 60,000
degrees Celsius now we’re going to go back to earth now and we’re going to
change its orbit back to where it was before because since the Sun is now a
lot less massive the orbit of our planet Earth has changed dramatically and we’re
going to play around with this later but let’s just for now change it back to
what it was one strong local unit and almost no eccentricity so here is Earth
orbiting as it was before and let’s find out what happens to our planet Earth if
the Sun you know changes into a white dwarf now if you were to stand on the
surface of the planet and if you to try to look into the Sun you would
see a very interesting kind of bright but very tiny blue / white spots in the
sky and this is basically what’s left of our Sun will be a very piercing light
that will be very difficult to look at obviously because it’s so hot and so
bright but at the same time because it’s so tiny its total luminosity would be
very very low and the thing is when the white dwarf is just forming this in this
case it’s the Sun right there it is actually super hot and very very bright
so it’s about five times more bright that the Sun was in the beginning with
meaning that our planet right now is going to be receiving a huge amount of
light if I were to accelerate time a little bit if you were to look at this
temperature right here you would see that it’s actually increasing
dramatically there’s no more there’s no more ice sheets left in the north and
the south and ice sheets will also disappear very very very quickly
essentially everything here will now start heating up and become ridiculously
hot so you can kind of see the oceans that are actually already receding and a
lot of the water on the surface is already being evaporated the greens and
all of the vegetation has kind of started to disappear and our planet is
now at a temperature of 120 degrees Celsius this is only a few months after
the the Noah after the Sun has become white warf all of the oceans have now
almost completely disappeared we now have a barren earth ridiculously hot
very very unfriendly and possibly devoid of life now this temperature is
currently very similar to the temperature of mercury and possibly even
hotter than mercury and within a year will reach temperatures of possibly
closer to Venus and this is of course going to destroy almost everything on
the planet only some of the most extreme forms of life also known as
extremophiles might be able to survive these really really hot temperatures but
our planet for the most part will become barren of life and will reach total
temperature of I think the maximum temperature was I kind of missed it but
it was approximately 350 degrees Celsius just below the temperature of Venus now
this of course will not last for a very long time because white works are
interested in that they actually are they start super hot and then they get
cooler and cooler and cooler with time and over time the luminosity and the
heat will start dropping and our planet will start receiving even less sunlight
I can actually show you this in more detail by changing this to let’s say
millions of years or actually let’s start with a thousand years so after a
thousand years the temperature will have already decreased there’s a lot less
light that’s being produced and every few years this will decrease even
further you can kind of see it slowly decreasing both surface temperature and
luminosity of the white dwarf now it will take several million years for this
to actually cool down to the point where our earth can become habitable again and
we’re going to simulate this in a second by doing the following I’m going to go
into millions of years here change this to 1 million years and start increasing
the age of the white dwarf and let’s see after how many millions of years our
planet will become habitable again and so within 6 millions of years you kind
of see there’s already liquid water again our planet is kind of habitable
the temperature is decreasing it will probably drop closer to 0 degrees now
and all the oceans that were on our planet including the ice Peaks are
slowly returning back here so this is within several millions of years after
the white dwarf formation and the temperature will now actually start
dropping even lower as a matter of fact after that point every single year will
start losing temperature and within a few million years this is what our
planet will transform into it’s going to slowly become an ice world it’s going to
become what’s called a snowball earth you can kind of see the ice sheets
forming starting to north and it’s probably some coming from the south as
well and this will actually happen as soon as our son has lived it’s
main-sequence life and become a white dwarf and then as soon as the white
water starts cooling down this is essential it’s going to happen now this
is within about five to six million years after the white dwarf formation
and it will never return to being worm or habitable ever again so the only
possibility for life now would be underneath this ice sheet in the parts
of liquid water that is still underneath which will actually eventually freeze
over as well but for now this is essentially it so this would be the end
of life on our planet Earth and this would happen within about five to six
billion years from now and then about six million years after the white dwarf
has been formed now as I keep advancing time here the temperature will decrease
even further and at some point billions of years into the future which
unfortunately we can’t really simulate this very well in the game but what will
happen to this interesting white dwarf is that it’s going to eventually cool
down to the point where it becomes known as the black dwarf now black dwarfs are
very radical because even though we have white words out there it just takes very
very very very long for black dwarfs to form and we don’t really know at least
we think that they don’t actually yet exist yet in our universe because of the
amount of time it takes to form one we don’t really know how long exactly it
takes but yeah we definitely haven’t seen them will definitely not see them
for a very long time and they probably still don’t exist there are very very
theoretical but they kind of look like this I’m going to show you one that’s
already pre-made in the game so here is actually a black dwarf
in the simulation called supernova I think it’s actually right here it’s
called supernova close up in real time so this is an example of what a black
dwarf would look like would be basically a very very very dark star that emits
almost no light and is essentially as dark as they come and inside of this
star you would basically find a lot of carbon oxygen and possibly some other
heavier elements that basically gets stuck there forever
now the thing is for this simulation we’ve actually changed the orbit of
Earth to make it more circular but in reality when the Sun does undergo Nova
when it actually becomes a white dwarf it’s going to lose a lot of its mass
meaning that our planet Earth is going to get kicked out into the our solar
system and let’s see what happens with our climate in that case so we’re going
to go back here again and change this to 11 billion years
boom it’s going to go Nova and change into a white dwarf and as soon as this
happens our earth will now have acquired a much much much stranger and eccentric
orbit so as a matter of fact if I were to go out here and show you the orbit
this is what it’s like now it’s this really really long ellipse that goes all
the way to where Jupiter used to be and then it’s going to come back here again
and all of these planets all the planets in our solar system will actually
acquire a very strange orbit so there’s going to be a lot of reshuffling sub
planets might actually get kicked out completely out of our solar system some
planets might reestablish orbits closer to the star but in case of Earth it’s at
first actually it’s going to travel farther away and let’s let’s check out
how the temperature will be affected by this so because our orbit will not be so
eccentric it’s very likely that we’ll have very strange seasons one of the
seasons will actually be very tolerable one when we’re only outskirts at the
epilepsies of our orbit farthest point of our orbit will be very far away from
the Sun and at this point it’s actually going to be relatively nice here you
know the temperature here is going to be what about 20 degrees maybe a little bit
lower let’s find out how cool it is going to get but yeah so at this point
right here this is when you can kind of survive on our planet you might even get
colder look at that getting to the point of below zero you might actually change
into a snowball here but then as you can guess we’re going to approach really
close to the Sun and that’s when things will not get so comfortable anymore
things as a matter of fact will get very uncomfortable there will be a lot of
really hot temperatures right now with like minus 60 degrees Celsius this is
essentially temperature you find Antarctica
except the entire earth is going to be like that that’s because we’re so so far
away from our Sun right now from the Sun remains I guess and look at that it’s
minus 100 degrees that is actually a lot less than I expected but now as soon as
we pass that point of apoapsis of the farthest point in our orbit we’re going
to start approaching this our Sun and as soon as that happens the temperature
will start going up again and so surviving on this planet might be
actually very very difficult because the temperature differences will be so high
very very high as a matter of fact and let’s see how how much it’s going to
warm up in this time that it spans near close close to the Sun and I think
because we spend so little time in our periapsis or the closest part of our
orbit we might not even have enough time to warm up and to melt all of this ice
so it’s possible that after the after Sun Goes Nova and becomes a white dwarf
even though it’s it is super super hot there might not be enough time for us to
actually melt the water so the planet might actually stay as a snowball after
all so as soon as Sun becomes a white dwarf it is very very likely that the
planet Earth will actually become a snowball for good now let’s see if this
is going to be real what what I expected to happen so we’re about to reach the
pre APS’s I think actually now we’ve already passed the periapsis we’ve
definitely passed the periapsis but it looks like our orbit has changed a
little bit as well so the thing is the planetary orbits will start to
reestablish circularity with with time but it will take many many millions of
years of orbiting the Sun for for this to actually happen so right now I’m not
exactly sure what’s happening on earth but it looks like it’s still frozen
so let’s actually run this for a few thousands of years and find out what
happens to our beautiful planet sometime in the future within thousands of years
of the formation of the white dwarf and the Sun and I’ve actually changed the
graph here a little bit so you can kind of see the progression with time and
looks like the planet is slow warming up it’s actually kind of going
up the temperature is now closer to like -15 degrees Celsius on average and I
think within about hundreds of years and by the way one year now it takes a few
years I think it actually takes 22 years one year on earth is not twenty-two
years long and so it’s a little bit obviously a little bit colder here but
it’s also our summers are obviously going to be a little bit longer as well
and so looks like with that with time mostly because of the changes in orbit
and because we’re still trying to restabilized orbits it looks like our
planet Earth might actually get a little bit warmer after all and looks like
we’ve established a repeating pattern here so our winter on the new earth is
about minus 50 degrees Celsius and our summer on planet Earth is about minus
six degrees Celsius it’s still a snowball as you can see it’s covered in
ice but there is a little uncertainty with what our orbit we’re actually
crossing the orbit of Jupiter and it’s very likely that at some point if we
cross to drip or approach Jupiter close enough we might get a new orbit entirely
and it might happen right now yeah look at that Jupiter has now kicked us out of
the old orbit and we’ve changed orbit yet again and this might actually happen
a few times as different planets approach to our newly created Earth we
might experience a lot of seasonal changes again so so just to summarize
what will happen to our solar system when our son becomes the white dwarf
well first of all obviously the earth will freeze over and second of all all
of the planets will actually acquire new and very unpredictable orbits a lot of
them will become very eccentric some of them will be once again affected by
Jupiter and it’s very likely that it’s Jupiter and Saturn that will actually
help other planets reestablish newly formed orbits and will either kick them
out of our solar system entirely or will possibly cause all of the planets here
to acquire a new circular orbit around the Sun but
in its a completely different area so it’s very likely that earth might
actually then get kicked out to the outskirts and have a new orbit somewhere
else in the solar system and just before we finish this video let’s actually take
a visit to other planets in our solar system and find out how they’re doing as
well so Mars is obviously also very very cold it has a very very eccentric orbit
and it’s very likely that it is going to get kicked out of the solar system at
some point as well then we have mercury which is very very close to our Sun and
it’s still there it’s just in a soil a different orbit it’s temperature has
increased about 220 degrees Celsius and it basically is higher than it used to
be and lastly we’ll have Venus here and it seems to have a really interesting
pattern so right now at the apoapsis is the fall at this point of its orbit
it’s temperatures about 100 degrees Celsius so it’s a little bit more
manageable but then Venus approaches the Sun and at its closest to the Sun its
temperature increases – whoa okay 700 degrees Celsius is where it actually
heats up and even lights up other planets like Saturn and Jupiter and
Neptune and Uranus are still obviously gas giants and they’re not particularly
interesting because we won’t be able to settle in them anyway but it looks like
everything in the solar system has actually become either very eccentric or
has completely left the solar system and has gone somewhere else in the universe
well I think that’s all I wanted to talk about in this video and hopefully you’ll
learn something from it and hopefully now you know what will happen to our
solar system and to our planet Earth when one day our Sun undergoes a nova
and becomes a white dwarf thank you so much for watching if you’ve enjoyed this
video don’t forget to share it don’t forget to like it and possibly even
leave a comment below letting me know what you think about the future of our
planet Earth and our solar system if you still haven’t subscribed don’t forget to
subscribe and if you would like to help this channel grow don’t forget there’s a
patreon page that helps me a lot with purchasing new equipment to make better
high quality videos in the future anyway thank you so much for watching guys I
really appreciate all your support and all of your awesome comments I’ll
see in the next video game you later and as always bye bye

100
Comments
  • 7:17 welcome to europa
    Me: wait what
    Ofcourse its europa look!
    Me: uhh dude its the future and the earth is already frozen and look the sun too
    Ohhhh my bad.

  • Nasa- f### earth Pluto your up
    Earth- ITS ONLY 2020
    pluto- =3 yay take that earth
    Black hole- eats earth 😁

  • Sun will become red giant then blue giant and white dwarf
    By the it becomes a red giant earth will be completly burned and you can imagine the rest

  • So I’m guessing a black dwarf star has what about half the gravity of a black hole. light goes in but can barely get out so it makes it seem dark 🤔

  • Biochemist here.
    Extremophiles would not survive this event. Lack of water would make it impossible for them to intake transition metals for metallo proteins (imagine if 70% of your proteins shut down), dehydration would be compounded by leftover salt drawing out even more water. The proteins in thermophiles can take around 150 degrees celsius, after that they will denature and fail.
    There are many other problems, but a change this rapid would wipe out life. This is even more devastating than the first photosynthetic organism oxygenating the environment and killing every other form of life, this is total solvent loss, no biochemical system can survive this. In addition, if the dwarf is hot enough, it will give off xrays in an attempt for electrons to lose energy, I know of no form of life that can take bombardment from xrays and still have a functioning genetic code in a month, and adaptation of DNA repair would be impossible in such a short time frame. Not only that, DNA repair would cost so much energy to maintain that it might completely invalidate carbon based forms of information transfer.

  • Our sun is to small to super Nova in about 5 billion years it will expand out past the orbit of the earth into a red giant devouring Mercury and Venus on its way to reaching the Earth then it will recede back down into a white dwarf……even if we were to say the sun was big enouph to supernova (witch its not) after a star super Novas it either turns into a black hole or a neutron star not a white dwarf

  • Apparently. Even were still alive in 5.1B years we wont get evaporated by the sun because
    A giant collision will happen about 3.4B years and collision of andromeda and milky way. Once they both collide or if andromeda eats milky way Many things will be thrown out and the sun will be gone because it was thrown out of milky way. And if The collide of andromeda and milky way happens. They will merge into another galaxy and alien life maybe made and now. No sun. No jupiter. But still allive and will die of low or high temp. So the Red Giant Phase wont happen yet. Because we wont die of heat but earth will survive.

  • Maybe something is not going well for our sun

    That’s what she said when her kid was diagnosed with cancer

  • The earth would be part of the sun because the red giant sun would eat it and then when it supernovas into a white dwarf

  • THE FUTURE OF EARTH ARE STILL QUESTION UNTIL NOW IF THIS CAN SURVIVE FOR BURNING HAVE A POSIBLE TO BURN YOUR PLANET BECAUSE UNTIL NOW HUMAN ARE NO ACTION TO CURE, HAVE A 6 YEARS REMAINING FOR THE DOOMSDAY AND NEXT YEAR ARE NO MORE SOLUTION TO CURE ANG THE DISTINATION OF YOUR PLANET WILL BE BURN ALL LIKE IN TIME OF DINOSAUR, I DONT KNOW IF HAVE A SURVIVOR BECAUSE TO STOP THE BURNING OF THE PLANET ARE NEEDS OF 3000 YEARS WRITTEN ON THE BIBLE, HOW HUMAN CAN SURVIVE FOR THAT LONG YEAR, BURNING IN TIME OF SUMMER AND NO SUN IN THE TIME OF WINTER FOR 3000 YEARS, THIS IS TRUE BECAUSE ALL PLANET IN WHOLE UNIVERSE ARE SUFFERED OF CLIMATE CHANGE OR BURNING IF THE LIVING IN THE PLANET ARE NO ANY KNOWLEDGE HOW TO PROTECT HER HOME, OUR TEACHER IAN ISAAC,ILUSTRE OR JESUS ARE HELPING THE HUMANITY HOW TO SURVIVE BUT NOBODY ARE ACCEPTING HER TEACH, HE USING THE FACE BOOK AND TWEETER TO DISTRIBUTE HER TEACHING BUT THE COMPANY OF FACE BOOK AND TWEETER ARE REMOVING HER ACCOUNT, THE PURPOSE ARETO STOP HELPING THE HUMAN TO SURVIVE, FOR ME OR TO MY TEACHER WE HAVE NO PROBLEM BECAUSE ME HAVE A OWN GALAXY AND PLANET ALSO OUR TEACHER HAVE OWN, I CAME FROM ANDROMEDA GALAXY WITH DESIGN OF HUMAN AND WE ARE THE SOLDIER OF JESUS OR IAN TO HELP THE HUMANITY FOR THE KILLING OF THE DRAGON,SNAKE AND REPTILLIAN ALIEN,, THE SITUATION OF YOUR PLANET NOW ARE TOO BAD AND HAVE A BIG POSIBLE TO BURN ALL, ,, I THINK NO MORE SOLUTION BECAUSE AFTER 7 YEARS OF TEACHING OF MY TEACHER IAN TO HUMANITY NOBODY ARE ACCEPTING ALL ARE CONTRARY THATS WHY IMPOSIBLE TO SURVIVE

  • Space facts!

    The Sun
    The sun is orange, but known as a yellow dwarf.
    The sun in midday appears white, and 85% of it’s brightness in space.
    The sun at sunset appears gradient red – orange, and has 55% of it’s brightness.
    The sun appears orange at sunrise, but has 99.99% of it’s brightness.

    Mars
    Mars is just like our earth at it’s beginning, because we can terraform Mars just like Earth.
    Mars can become habitable if we terraform it, we just need Jupiter, Saturn and giant asteroids.
    Mars appears in the night sky as a red tiny dot.

    Jupiter
    Jupiter appears in the sky as a not-so-bright giant white dot in the night sky, that we can see it with our bare eyes.
    Jupiter’s red spot is nicknamed “Storm’s Eye”.
    Jupiter’s red spot’s storm is so strong that you can’t even stand a second there.

    Earth
    …The perfect place for all source of life.
    Earth is mostly snow. Earth is mostly ocean*
    Earth is terraformed right now, because of Jupiter and Saturn.
    The Earth is the 3rd planet away from the sun.

    550,000 miles
    🌏 ⚽️ 🏀 🌞
    Earth is a sphere, not flat.
    Earth’s Moon is 250,000 miles away from Earth.

    250,000 miles
    🌏 🌓

  • To anyone there reading: If the planets that gravitate around a dying star get slowly kicked out into the open universe, why we don't observe more of these "freed planets" with our telescopes? Actually I think we never seen one single planet roaming around the universe without a orbit, right? Is that because our universe is still too young for this to happening? Thanks!

  • I feel bad for the people and life around when the sun goes out so we die either way if the sun explodes outward we would burn to a crisp but if we survive that we freeze solid and the possibility of the planets smashing into each other

  • I'm not suggesting there is a planet x, but if there were, this could explain a planet having an elongated ellipses. Prior generations of Nova. We have a lot of gold here (;

  • i love it when the temperature just goes bungee jumping when the sun just randomly implodes. that's pretty much how fragile our lives and solar systems are

  • Have you seen Run's planet from To Love Ru? It's a planet with eternal daylight because 2 stars orbit in on opposite sides (at least I think the stars are orbiting). I think the stars might be white dwarves since they are smaller than the planet itself. Could you try to simulate this and see if it's possible to survive on such a planet?

  • OMG… You guys are sun is way too small to ever go supernova. Way too small. A red giant is a type of star not a phase so we will not it is a red giant phase either. It will, however, start cooling and in doing so start expanding, engulfing us, Mars, the asteroid belt and perhaps even Jupiter. Then, theoretically, once it has hit its maximum expansion to mass ratio, it will collapse down upon itself. It, however, will stop collapsing far far far before ever could become a singularity….it hasn't the mass. One thing to consider though is this… If it were to expand all the way out to Jupiter, I believe Jupiter's mass once combined with that of Sol, could very well kick start a new fusion reaction which would very easily consume all of Saturn's energy, hence becoming what would could become massive enough to hit the 'Baby Red Giant catergory. Big if…. But not that big .. physics is physics is physics unless yo you happen to be in a place that it's not. Booyah!

  • The sun will not go " nova" it does not have enough mass.
    The earth will probably not be around when the sun turns into a white dwarf it would be swallowed by the red giant phase :/

  • When the sun goes into super nova it will blow away earth's magnetic field protection and everything not under water will die . The oceans will heat up and all the methane gas on the ocean floors will kill most things under water.

  • Future of our eath if we loose Trump the pedophiles are taking over taking our gun money killing adults and taking the children turning America into something like Epstein's Island.all people who want Trump out are in that pedophile ring

  • A black hole of minimum size entering the solar system will effect what ever would have been effected by the entrance of a planet of equal mass.

  • This is not a realistic simulation. Earth’s water is not returning after red giant phase. It will separated the hydrogen and oxygen and be blown into outer space.

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